With around different nationalities living in the country. Portuguese make up the biggest group at Although in , the Grand Duke refused to sign a bill approving euthanasia as it was against his personal beliefs; this led to a constitutional reform. The monarch is no longer required to approve laws and the role has become mainly ceremonial.
Now Luxembourg is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy and the Grand Duke is the Head of State. It has an area of around 2, square kilometres square miles , about the same size as the county of Dorset in the UK and slightly smaller than Rhode Island in the US. Elements from all these eras can still be seen in various gates, bastions and forts and the old parts of the city have kept their original layout and public buildings.
Children are taught in Luxembourgish in nursery schools; then also in French and German at primary school, plus English at secondary level. The Luxembourg parliament uses Luxembourgish while laws are made in French. Watched by around 40, spectators, dancers wearing white shirts and dark trousers or skirts and holding handkerchiefs perform a synchronised hopping procession around the city, accompanied by a catchy polka marching band.
Reforms are on their way.
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When he married Gauthier Destenay in May The Luxembourg government approved same-sex marriage in June after a poll found that 83 percent of Luxembourgers supported it. With 91 per cent of the population turning out to vote in recent elections the average for other OECD countries is just 68 per cent. With interests in 54 TV channels and 29 radio stations worldwide. The first radio station, Radio Luxembourg, went on air in The village, located where Luxembourg, France and Germany meet, symbolises free movement and the abolition of internal borders.
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In and again in At one point, the prominent French writer Victor Hugo resided in Vianden, Luxembourg near the German border and the house has been transformed into a museum. Have a cookie Expatica uses technology such as cookies and scripts to personalize content and ads, provide social media features, and analyze our traffic. You can of course change your mind and withdraw your consent at any time, by returning to this site after clearing the cookies on your computer or device.
This site uses functional cookies and external scripts to improve your experience. Which cookies and scripts are used and how they impact your visit is specified on the left. You may change your settings at any time. Your choices will not impact your visit. NOTE: These settings will only apply to the browser and device you are currently using. Search for:. Last update on November 01, Luxembourg is the second richest country in the world. Luxembourg has the highest minimum wage in the EU. Paying workers a minimum of EUR 1, per month. Luxembourg is one of the safest countries in the world.
Luxembourg is the only Grand Duchy in the world. Luxembourg is named after a Saxon fortress. Luxembourg became one of the leading exponents of international co-operation after the World War II. Just under half of the permanent residents in Luxembourg are foreign With around different nationalities living in the country. Euthanasia and assisted suicide is legal in Luxembourg Although in , the Grand Duke refused to sign a bill approving euthanasia as it was against his personal beliefs; this led to a constitutional reform.
Luxembourg is one of the smallest countries in the world. Luxembourg is the least populated of all the EU countries. The most powerful person in the EU is Luxembourgish. Luxembourgers are typically tri-lingual. Luxembourg has the highest rate of car ownership in the world. In certain policy areas, such as statistics and vocational training, they even function as public administrative bodies. There have been no significant changes within employers' organisations in recent years. UEL was founded in as a result of formalising an existing liaison committee of sectoral business organisations.
UEL signed the rare economy-wide agreements that mainly implement European framework agreements. It was introduced in the s, at a time when it was necessary to reorganise the iron and steel industry and deal with social problems. This tripartite model kept thousands of steel workers from becoming redundant, made the steel industry fit for the global economy and introduced social policy measures aimed at keeping the unemployment rate very low. The economic and financial crisis of altered the tripartite model fundamentally, because the deterioration of public finances implied that employers and employees had to take more of the burden.
Moreover, trade unions and employer organisations disagreed on the causes of the crisis and wanted different solutions.
Employers wanted to reinforce competitiveness by reducing costs, whereas trade unions wanted to strengthen economic demand. The economic crisis led to the failure of tripartite dialogue in The government consults the committee on projects aimed at changing legislation or regulations that affect different sectors or the whole national economy. The government may also consult the committee on specific issues to obtain its advice. The committee also coordinates the involvement of social partners within the EU Semester consultation process.
Consulted and provides advice on any legislative or regulatory action relating to professional sectors and the entire national economy. The situation of companies forced to resort to short-time working arrangements and to propose, if needed, compensatory payments to companies resorting to short-time work. In establishments that are part of the same enterprise, a central delegation is established.
The law of 23 July to reform social dialogue within companies, which was adopted in July , has changed this regulation. From the next round of workplace election, in , the staff delegation becomes the single body representing the interests of the employees and is granted the powers of the joint committee, particularly with regard to codetermination, once the threshold of employees is exceeded. It makes every effort to prevent and mitigate any individual and collective conflict s that could emerge between the employer and the workforce.
The staff delegation can, in the absence of any conflict resolution, refer to the Labour and Mines Inspectorate any complaint or observation relating to the application of the legal, regulatory, administrative or contractual provisions such as those laid down in a collective agreement that affect the working conditions and protection of employees at their workplace.
Article L. According to the Labour Code, the management is obliged to inform the staff delegation and the equality delegate about the structure and the situation of the undertaking or establishment as well as the probable evolution of its activities. This information should be provided during meetings with the management of the establishment see Labour Code article L. The last elections were held in November The new law makes the delegation the only body that will represent employee interests, fulfilling functions such as presenting complaints or suggestions to companies on issues such as working safety, part-time work, harassment and training.
The size of the delegation depends on the number of employees at the company, ranging from one member for a company that has 15—25 employees, to 25 members for companies with between 5, and 5, employees. Staff delegates will benefit from increased paid leave and more time for training to fulfil their duties. The employer will provide the delegation with information about the company, including developments of its activities, its financial outlook, and foreseen changes in its employment situation. In companies with at least employees, this will either happen once a month, or at the request of the delegation; in smaller companies, at least annually.
Staff delegations will have co-decision rights of the past joint company committee see below and additionally, on vocational training issues Labour Code, article L. The staff delegation in companies with fewer than employees have no co-decision rights on these topics, but they are informed and consulted, and they do not have to agree with the employer.
Furthermore, in companies with at least 51 employees instead of employees before the reform , staff delegates will have increased opportunities to seek the advice of external counsellors or have experts to assist them on technical matters. Another innovation is the right to use mediation in the event of disputes about the application of the Labour Code in relation to staff delegations. The joint committee, that will be abolished and replaced progressively by the reform of see above , has an equal number of employee representatives appointed by secret ballot and employer representatives appointed by the head of the company , according to the size of the workforce employed.
The role of the joint company committee is to provide a forum in which employer and employees can work together to improve industrial relations in the workplace.
Among other topics, the joint company committee has to be informed and consulted on changes affecting the workplace such as construction, extension, new production processes Labour Code article L. There are some issues on which the joint company committee itself decides.
Luxembourg - Wikipedia
These are:. Collective bargaining The central concern of employment relations is the collective governance of work and employment. This section looks into collective bargaining in Luxembourg. The collective agreement enables the regulations of the labour laws to be adapted to the needs and specific requirements of a company or a sector. There are two types of collective agreements:. The most important levels for negotiations are at sectoral and company level. The relative importance of the two levels of agreement varies from sector to sector.
Sectoral agreements exist, for example, in sectors such as banking, insurance, private security, the construction sector and all the related crafts as well as in the hospital and social sector. However, many sectors have no industry-level agreements. Unless stipulated otherwise in the collective agreement, senior management is not concerned by the working and salary conditions established in the collective agreement which applies to the staff. The following are considered to be senior management:. There is no national collective bargaining on wages. Luxembourg is characterised by the prevalence of company- level collective agreements over sectoral-level agreements.
However, there is a mechanism of wage indexation. Salaries and wages including the minimum wage are adjusted in line with the cost of living. When the consumer price index increases or decreases by 2.
Luxembourg country profile
The consumer price index and its impact on the sliding wage scale are published monthly by the national statistics body Statec. The employer must increase all wages by 2. Sectoral collective agreements may include salary rates linked to grade and coefficient. At company level, collective agreements on wages are often concluded for 12 to 24 months. The latest national data about collective bargaining coverage were published in The global rate includes the public sector and is based on the EU Structure of earnings survey SES , in contrast to the data provided by the European Company Survey see table , which focus on companies of the private sector with more than 10 employees.
Intersectoral agreements are rare and never cover issues such as wages or working time. They mainly implement EU-wide agreements concluded by social partners, such as telework or harassment at the workplace. The most important levels for negotiations are at the sectoral and company level.